## Physics +2 1st Year Syllabus

With types of motion, kinematics, force, waves, heat transfer Preparation...

### Course Structure

SL-NO THEORY PAPER MARKS
1 Objective 20
2 Short answer type 29
3 Long type 21
Total 70

## UNIT- I : UNITS, DIMENSIONS, MECHANICS OF PATICLE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER:

I (A) 1. UNITS AND DIMENSIONS :

Scope of Physics. Measurement: need , units of measurement. Fundamental and derived units. SI units. Advantages of SI units. Measurement of microscopic and macroscopic lengths (A.U, Light year, Parsec, micrometer, nanometer, Angstrom and fermi ). Metric prefixes. Dimension of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. Errors in measurement: absolute and relative error, percentage & combination of errors.

2. TYPES OF MOTION :

Rest and motion. Frame of reference. Translational and rotational motion. Motion in one, two and three dimensions. Distance and displacement. Scalars and vectors. Unit vector. Components of a vector along the coordinate axes. Addition and subtraction of vectors. Triangle, parallelogram and polygon law method of vector addition. Dot and cross product of two vectors.

3. KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE

Simple introduction to elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Speed and velocity. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Displacement-time and velocity- time graph. Area under velocity-time graph. Equations of motion for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion by both graphical and calculus method. Relative velocity.

II – (B) 4. LINEAR MOMENTUM, FORCE

Concept of force. Newton’s Ist law, 2nd law, 3rd law. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Constant force and a variable force. Conservative and non-conservative forces. Kinetic energy. Work- energy theorem. Power. Potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy (K.E & P.E ). Elastic collision in one dimension and elementary idea of inelastic collision. Frictional forces. Static and kinetic friction. Rolling friction. Laws of friction.

5. PROJECTILE MOTION :

Equation of trajectory of a projectile. Range, time of flight and maximum height of a projectile fired (at an angle with horizontal and horizontally from a height.)

6. DEFORMABLE BODIES AND ELASTIC DEFORMATION

Elasticity and plasticity. Stress and strain. Hook’s law. Elastic limit. Stress- strain diagram. Young’s modulus, Bulk’s modulus and modulus of rigidity. Poissn’s ratio.

## UNIT- II : CIRCULAR AND ROTATIONAL MOTION, GRAVITATION, OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES:

II (A) 1. CIRCULAR MOTION

Angular displacement velocity and acceleration. Relation of angular displacement, velocity and acceleration with corresponding linear parameters. Uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane. Centripetal and centrifugal forces. Banking of tracks (without friction).Motion in a vertical circle.

2. ROTATIONAL MOTION OF A RIGID BODY.

Centre of mass of a two-particle system. Centre of mass and centre of gravity of rigid bodies. Torque. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, Couple. Principle of moments. Equations of rotational motion. Comparison between linear and rotational motion. Rotational K.E. Moment of inertia. Radius of gyration. Parallel and perpendicular axis theorems (statement only). Moment of inertia of thin ring and disc.

3. GRAVITATIONAL MOTION

Newton’s law of gravitation. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (statement only). Gravitational field and potential. Gravitational potential energy. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

II (B) 4. OSCILLATORY MOTIONS.

Periodic motion: period, frequency & function. Simple Harmonic Motion and its equation. Expression for displacement, velocity and acceleration in SHM. Oscillation of a spring. Restoring force and force constant. Kinetic and potential energy in SHM. Simple pendulum and derivation for its time period. Free, damped, Forced vibration and Resonance (simple ideas).

5. TRANSVERSE AND LONGITUDINAL WAVES.

Wave motion: Displacement, amplitude, frequency, wavelength and sped of propagation. Characteristics of wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves. Equation of a progressive wave. Speed of longitudinal wave in an elastic medium and speed of transverse wave in a stretched string (dimensional analysis). Principle of superposition. Stationary waves. Nodes and antinodes. Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, faundamental mode & harmonics. Beats. Doppler’s effect.

## UNIT- III : LIQUIDS, HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS:

III (A) 1. LIQUID AT REST (4 Classes)

Pressure due to a liquid column. Pascal’s law and its application. Surface tension. Surface energy. Angle of contact. Excess pressure within a droplet and soap bubble. Capillary action. Expression for capillary rise.

2. FLOW OF LIQUIDS AND VISCOSITY (6 Classes)

Streamline and turbulent flow. Equation of continuity. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Viscosity. Co-efficient viscosity. Reynold’s number. Critical velocity. Terminal velocity. Stoke’s law (dimensional analysis method).

3. HEAT PHENOMENA (6 Classes)

Concepts of heat and temperature. Scales of temperature. Thermal expansion of solids. Relation between the co-efficients of expansion. Specific heat and heat capacity. Change of state: latent heat.

III (B) 4. HEAT TRANSFER (5 Classes)

Heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation). Thermal conductivity. Determinations of Thermal conductivity of a good conductor by serle’s method Properties of heat radiation. Reflectance, absorptance and transmittance, Black body. Kirchhoff’s and Stefan’s law. Newton’s law of cooling and its derivation from Stefan’s law.

5. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. (5 Classes)

Postulates of kinetic theory of gases. Derivation for pressure due to an ideal gas. Mean and RMS speed. Kinetic interpretation of temperature. Degrees of freedom. Law of equipartition of energy and its application to specific heat capacities of gases.

6. THERMODYNAMICS. (8 Classes)

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. Mechanical equivalent of heat. First law of thermodynamics. Molar specific heat. Relation between Cp & Cv. Thermodynamic variables. Indicator diagram. Adiabatic and isothermal processes. Work done due to isothermal, isobaric and adiabatic process. Second law of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot’s engine and refrigerator. Efficiency of Carnot’s engine.